Deakin University

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Effects of a multicomponent exercise program combined with calcium-vitamin D₃-enriched milk on health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms in older men: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

journal contribution
posted on 2020-01-01, 00:00 authored by Joshua Matthews, Susan TorresSusan Torres, Catherine MilteCatherine Milte, Indee Hopkins, Sonja Kukuljan, Caryl NowsonCaryl Nowson, Robin DalyRobin Daly
PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is associated with both lower health-related quality of life and depression in older people. We examined the independent and combined effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium-vitamin D3 fortified milk on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and depression in older men. METHODS: In this 12-month, factorial design randomized controlled trial, 180 healthy community-dwelling men aged 50-79 years with normal to below average bone mineral density were allocated into one of four groups: exercise + fortified milk; exercise; fortified milk; or controls. Exercise consisted of high-intensity resistance training with weight-bearing exercise (3 days per week; 60-75 min per session). Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400 ml/day of low-fat milk containing 1000 mg/day calcium and 800IU/day vitamin D3. Questionnaires were used to assess HR-QoL (SF-36) and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) at baseline, and 6 and 12 months. A linear mixed model analysis was used to test whether there was a synergistic interaction between exercise and calcium-vitamin D3. If no significant interactions were detected, the main effects of exercise and fortified milk were examined. RESULTS: Mean adherence to the exercise program and fortified milk was 67% (95% CI 61, 73%) and 90% (95% CI 86, 93%), respectively. There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions nor main effects of exercise or calcium-vitamin D for any of the HR-QoL measures or depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: In healthy community-dwelling older men, exercise training and/or calcium-vitamin D fortified milk did not improve HR-QoL or depressive symptoms.



European journal of nutrition




1081 - 1091




Berlin, Germany







Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

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2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH