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Effects of antipsychotic drugs on energy metabolism

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder associated with altered bioenergetic pathways and mitochondrial dysfunction. Antipsychotic medications, both first and second-generation, are commonly prescribed to manage SCZ symptoms, but their direct impact on mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of commonly prescribed antipsychotics on bioenergetic pathways in cultured neurons. We examined the impact of risperidone, aripiprazole, amisulpride, and clozapine on gene expression, mitochondrial bioenergetic profile, and targeted metabolomics after 24-h treatment, using RNA-seq, Seahorse XF24 Flux Analyser, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), respectively. Risperidone treatment reduced the expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glycolysis pathways, and it showed a tendency to decrease basal mitochondrial respiration. Aripiprazole led to dose-dependent reductions in various mitochondrial function parameters without significantly affecting gene expression. Aripiprazole, amisulpride and clozapine treatment showed an effect on the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism, leading to more abundant metabolite levels. Antipsychotic drug effects on mitochondrial function in SCZ are multifaceted. While some drugs have greater effects on gene expression, others appear to exert their effects through enzymatic post-translational or allosteric modification of enzymatic activity. Understanding these effects is crucial for optimising treatment strategies for SCZ. Novel therapeutic interventions targeting energy metabolism by post-transcriptional pathways might be more effective as these can more directly and efficiently regulate energy production.

History

Journal

European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

Location

Germany

ISSN

0940-1334

eISSN

1433-8491

Language

English

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Publisher

SPRINGER HEIDELBERG