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Effects of leveling agent on the uptake of reactive dyes by untreated and plasma-treated wool
journal contributionposted on 2010-01-01, 00:00 authored by Maryam NaebeMaryam Naebe, Peter Cookson, John Rippon, Xungai WangXungai Wang
Atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment of wool fabric produced a significantly higher level of adsorbed fiber-reactive dye when applied at 50 °C (pH 3.0–6.0) in the absence of any organic leveling agent. In addition, color yields indicated that dye was more uniformly adsorbed by the plasma-treated fabric compared with the untreated material. When untreated fabric was dyed in the presence of a leveling agent (Albegal B), the extent and levelness of dye sorption were enhanced. These enhancements were, however, relatively small on the plasma-treated wool compared with those on untreated wool. A ‘surface’ mechanism, similar to that proposed when plasma-treated wool is dyed in the absence of leveling agent, can explain the leveling ability of Albegal B under adsorption conditions. Increasing the dyebath temperature to 90 °C resulted in dye penetration of the fibers. Under these conditions, any enhancements of dye uptake produced by the plasma treatment, as well as the use of Albegal B, were relatively small, in contrast to the behavior at 50 °C. Improvements in the uniformity of dye sorption observed at 50 °C were, however, maintained at the higher temperature. It is concluded that the inability of reactive dyes to migrate (and so promote leveling and uniformity) once they have reacted with the fiber, means that differences in the uniformity of dye sorbed at 50 °C are still apparent at equilibrium.