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Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-mo randomized controlled trial

journal contribution
posted on 2009-12-01, 00:00 authored by Sonja Kukuljan, Caryl NowsonCaryl Nowson, K Sanders, Robin DalyRobin Daly
Limited data have suggested that the consumption of fluid milk after resistance training (RT) may promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to assess whether a milk-based nutritional supplement could enhance the effects of RT on muscle mass, size, strength, and function in middle-aged and older men. This was an 18-mo factorial design (randomized control trial) in which 180 healthy men aged 50–79 yr were allocated to the following groups: 1) exercise + fortified milk, 2) exercise, 3) fortified milk, or 4) control. Exercise consisted of progressive RT with weight-bearing impact exercise. Men assigned to the fortified milk consumed 400 ml/day of low-fat milk, providing an additional 836 kJ, 1000 mg calcium, 800 IU vitamin D3, and 13.2 g protein per day. Total body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), midfemur muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (quantitative computed tomography), muscle strength, and physical function were assessed. After 18 mo, there was no significant exercise by fortified milk interaction for total body LM, muscle CSA, or any functional measure. However, main effect analyses revealed that exercise significantly improved muscle strength (∼20–52%, P < 0.001), LM (0.6 kg, P < 0.05), FM (−1.1 kg, P < 0.001), muscle CSA (1.8%, P < 0.001), and gait speed (11%, P < 0.05) relative to no exercise. There were no effects of the fortified milk on muscle size, strength, or function. In conclusion, the daily consumption of low-fat fortified milk does not enhance the effects of RT on skeletal muscle size, strength, or function in healthy middle-aged and older men with adequate energy and nutrient intakes.



Journal of applied physiology






1864 - 1873


American Physiological Society


[Bethesda, Md.]







Publication classification

C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2009, American Physiological Society