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Electrochemiluminescent monomers for solid support syntheses of Ru(II)-PNA bioconjugates : multimodal biosensing tools with enhanced duplex stability

journal contribution
posted on 2012-02-16, 00:00 authored by T Joshi, Gregory Barbante, Paul FrancisPaul Francis, C Hogan, A Bond, G Gasser, L Spiccia
The feasibility of devising a solid support mediated approach to multimodal Ru(II)-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers is explored. Three Ru(II)-PNA-like monomers, [Ru(bpy)2(Cpp-L-PNA-OH)]2+ (M1), [Ru(phen)2(Cpp-L-PNA-OH)]2+ (M2), and [Ru(dppz)2(Cpp-L-PNA-OH)]2+ (M3) (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine, Cpp-L-PNA-OH = [2-(N-9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)aminoethyl]-N-[6-(2-(pyridin-2yl)pyrimidine-4-carboxamido)hexanoyl]-glycine), have been synthesized as building blocks for Ru(II)-PNA oligomers and characterized by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, electrochemistry and elemental analysis. As a proof of principle, M1 was incorporated on the solid phase within the PNA sequences H-g-c-a-a-t-a-a-a-a-Lys-NH2 (PNA1) and H-P-K-K-K-R-K-V-g-c-a-a-t-a-a-a-a-lys-NH2 (PNA4) to give PNA2 (H-g-c-a-a-t-a-a-a-a-M1-lys-NH2) and PNA3 (H-P-K-K-K-R-K-V-g-c-a-a-t-a-a-a-a-M1-lys-NH2), respectively. The two Ru(II)-PNA oligomers, PNA2 and PNA3, displayed a metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition band centered around 445 nm and an emission maximum at about 680 nm following 450 nm excitation in aqueous solutions (10 mM PBS, pH 7.4). The absorption and emission response of the duplexes formed with the cDNA strand (DNA: 5′-T-T-T-T-T-T-T-A-T-T-G-C-T-T-T-3′) showed no major variations, suggesting that the electronic properties of the Ru(II) complexes are largely unaffected by hybridization. The thermal stability of the PNA·DNA duplexes, as evaluated from UV melting experiments, is enhanced compared to the corresponding nonmetalated duplexes. The melting temperature (Tm) was almost 8 °C higher for PNA2·DNA duplex, and 4 °C for PNA3·DNA duplex, with the stabilization attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the cationic residues (Ru(II) unit and positively charged lysine/arginine) and the polyanionic DNA backbone. In presence of tripropylamine (TPA) as co-reactant, PNA2, PNA3, PNA2·DNA and PNA3·DNA displayed strong electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signals even at submicromolar concentrations. Importantly, the combination of spectrochemical, thermal and ECL properties possessed by the Ru(II)-PNA sequences offer an elegant approach for the design of highly sensitive multimodal biosensing tools.

History

Journal

Inorganic chemistry

Volume

51

Issue

5

Pagination

3302 - 3315

Publisher

American Chemical Society

Location

Washington, D. C.

ISSN

0020-1669

eISSN

1520-510X

Language

eng

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2012, American Chemical Society