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Endurance training in humans leads to fiber type-specific increases in levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-[gamma] coactivator-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-[alpha] in skeletal muscle
journal contributionposted on 01.12.2003, 00:00 authored by Aaron RussellAaron Russell, J Feilchenfeldt, S Schreiber, M Praz, A Crettenand, C Gobelet, C Meier, D Bell, A Kralli, J P Giacobino, O Deriaz
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1) can induce mitochondria biogenesis and has been implicated in the development of oxidative type I muscle fibers. The PPAR isoforms α, β/δ, and γ control the transcription of genes involved in fatty acid and glucose metabolism. As endurance training increases skeletal muscle mitochondria and type I fiber content and fatty acid oxidative capacity, our aim was to determine whether these increases could be mediated by possible effects on PGC-1 or PPAR-α, -β/δ, and -γ. Seven healthy men performed 6 weeks of endurance training and the expression levels of PGC-1 and PPAR-α, -β/δ, and -γ mRNA as well as the fiber type distribution of the PGC-1 and PPAR-α proteins were measured in biopsies from their vastus lateralis muscle. PGC-1 and PPAR-α mRNA expression increased by 2.7- and 2.2-fold (P < 0.01), respectively, after endurance training. PGC-1 expression was 2.2- and 6-fold greater in the type IIa than in the type I and IIx fibers, respectively. It increased by 2.8-fold in the type IIa fibers and by 1.5-fold in both the type I and IIx fibers after endurance training (P < 0.015). PPAR-α was 1.9-fold greater in type I than in the II fibers and increased by 3.0-fold and 1.5-fold in these respective fibers after endurance training (P < 0.001). The increases in PGC-1 and PPAR-α levels reported in this study may play an important role in the changes in muscle mitochondria content, oxidative phenotype, and sensitivity to insulin known to be induced by endurance training.