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Examining the factor structure, sex invariance, and psychometric properties of the Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire and the Functionality Appreciation Scale

journal contribution
posted on 2020-09-01, 00:00 authored by Jake LinardonJake Linardon, Mariel MesserMariel Messer, J Lisboa, Angela Newton, Matthew Fuller-TyszkiewiczMatthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Body image flexibility and functionality appreciation are two facets of positive body image gaining significant research attention. The measures that assess these constructs― the Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BI-AAQ) and Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS), respectively―have produced a unidimensional structure with adequate psychometric properties. However, the cross-sex invariance of the BI-AAQ has yet to be established, and replicating the FAS’ one-factor structure is needed. We examined the factor structure, cross-sex invariance, and psychometric properties of the BI-AAQ and FAS. Data were analyzed from 383 men and 631 women who completed questionnaires (participants were not restricted to a specific country). An unacceptable model fit for the BI-AAQ was found for men and women, indicating that the unidimensional structure was not replicated. The unidimensional structure of the FAS and an abbreviated 5-item BI-AAQ was replicated, and tests of measurement invariance between men and women were upheld. Evidence of internal consistency, convergent validity, and incremental validity for the abbreviated BI-AAQ and FAS was found. Overall, the abbreviated BI-AAQ and the FAS appear to be psychometrically sound measures of positive body image. Findings suggest that sex comparisons on the abbreviated BI-AAQ and FAS are permissible.



Body Image




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Amsterdam, The Netherlands





Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal