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Fiscal policy and environment: a long-run multivariate empirical analysis of ecological footprint in Pakistan

journal contribution
posted on 2022-01-01, 00:00 authored by S Zahra, D Khan, Muhammad NoumanMuhammad Nouman
The ecological footprint attempts to quantify human impact on nature and its resources necessary to satisfy human needs. This research study explores the long-run implications of fiscal policy on the ecological footprint in Pakistan empirically, keeping different socio-economic factors into consideration. Per annum, time series data have been collected between 1976 and 2018, and the ARDL model is applied to investigate this long-run and short-run association. The conclusion of ARDL model shows that a 1% increase in public development expenditures, total population, GDP, and energy consumption increase 0.19, 2.17, 1.16, and 2.17% ecological footprint, respectively, in Pakistan between 1976 and 2018 vice versa. However, it is also derived that a 1% increase in public tax and non-tax revenue and current public expenditures (in health, education, and other social sectors) shrink 0.36 and 0.013% ecological footprint in the long run in Pakistan. For policy implications, these results focus on practical fiscal policy significance to achieve environmental targets in Pakistan, suggesting an increase in public current expenditures in public and social sectors and increasing public revenue by expanding the tax base, which will ultimately reduce ecological footprint in the long run in Pakistan.

History

Journal

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Volume

29

Issue

2

Pagination

2523 - 2538

ISSN

0944-1344

eISSN

1614-7499

Publication classification

CN.1 Other journal article

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