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Food consumption according to the degree of processing, dietary diversity and socio-demographic factors among pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The Rio Birth Cohort Study of Environmental Exposure and Childhood Development (PIPA project)

Version 2 2024-06-05, 05:47
Version 1 2020-10-29, 08:32
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-05, 05:47 authored by NF Naspolini, P Pereira Machado, CIR Fróes-Asmus, VDM Câmara, JC Moreira, A Meyer
Background: Relevant evidence has addressed the negative impact of food processing on health. However, maternal ultra-processed food consumption is poorly investigated. Aim: To analyze food consumption according to the degree of food processing, dietary diversity, and associated socio-demographic factors during pregnancy. Methods: Cross-sectional data was taken from a birth cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with 142 pregnant women. We assessed diet using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire and classified food items according to the NOVA classification system as non-ultra-processed-foods and ultra-processed-foods. Non-ultra-processed-food and ultra-processed-food scores were calculated, reflecting weekly intake of more than one subgroup. Dietary diversity of the non-ultra-processed-food diet fraction was described according to the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines. The association between food consumption and socio-demographic factors were investigated using logistic regression models. Results: Over 60% of the pregnant women reported consumption of at least three non-ultra-processed-food groups. However, only 25% had adequate dietary diversity. The level of education (Complete high school: odds ratio, 5.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.73–16.65) was associated with regular intake of “meat and eggs.” Among the ultra-processed-food score, 27% of the participants described a weekly consumption of at least two ultra-processed-food subgroups. White women (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–6.63) had a higher chance of reporting “packaged ready meals” consumption. Conclusions: This study shows a high weekly consumption of ultra-processed-food subgroups and low dietary diversity of the non-ultra-processed-food fraction of the diet of pregnant women in Brazil. Our results elucidate the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on diet quality during pregnancy.

History

Journal

Nutrition and Health

Article number

026010602096088

Pagination

1-10

Location

Thousand Oaks, CA

ISSN

0260-1060

eISSN

2047-945X

Language

eng

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2020, The Author(s)

Publisher

SAGE Publications

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