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High tidal volume ventilation is not deleterious in infant rats exposed to severe hemorrhage

journal contribution
posted on 2010-01-01, 00:00 authored by V Cannizzaro, L J Berry, P K Nicholls, Z Hantos, Peter Sly
Both high tidal volume (VT) ventilation and hemorrhage induce acute lung injury in adult rodents. It is not known whether injurious ventilation augments lung injury in infant rats exposed to severe hemorrhage. Two-week-old rats were allocated for ventilation with VT 7 mL/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cm H2O (low VT) or VT 21 mL/kg and PEEP 1 (high VT) for 4 hours. Additional rats were subjected to volume-controlled hemorrhage and delayed saline resuscitation, followed by low VT or high VT ventilation for 4 hours. Nonventilated control groups were also included. Airway resistance and the coefficient of tissue elastance were derived from respiratory input impedance measurements using the low-frequency forced oscillation technique. Pressure-volume curves were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study. Interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum. In both healthy and hemorrhage-exposed animals, high VT resulted in reduced elastance (better lung compliance) and increased transcutaneous oxygen saturation. Interleukin-6 in BALF was greater in ventilated animals when compared with nonventilated controls, but not different among ventilated groups. No significant differences were found for all other inflammatory mediators, total protein concentration in BALF, and histology. High VT ventilation with low PEEP improves respiratory system mechanics without causing additional damage to healthy and hemorrhage-exposed infant rats after 4 hours of ventilation. This study highlights the tolerance to high VT ventilation in infant rats and underscores the need for age-specific animal models. © 2010 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Inc.

History

Journal

Journal of Trauma Nursing

Volume

69

Issue

4

Pagination

E24 - E31

ISSN

1078-7496

eISSN

1932-3883