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Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Australian-Grown Bell Peppers by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry and Estimation of Their Antioxidant Potential
journal contributionposted on 2022-11-25, 05:55 authored by Z Leng, B Zhong, H Wu, Z Liu, A Rauf, S Bawazeer, Hafiz SuleriaHafiz Suleria
Bell peppers are widely considered as healthy foods that can provide people with various phytochemicals, especially phenolic compounds, which contribute to the antioxidant property of bell peppers. Nevertheless, the acknowledgment of phenolic compounds in bell peppers is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the phenolic content and the antioxidant potential in pulps and seeds of different bell peppers (green, yellow, and red) by several in vitro assays followed by the characterization and quantification of individual phenolics using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) quantification, respectively. The captured results showed that the pulp of red bell peppers exhibited the highest phenolic content in the total polyphenol content (1.03 ± 0.07 mg GAE/gf.w.), total flavonoid content (137.43 ± 6.35 μg QE/gf.w.), and total tannin content (0.22 ± 0.01 mg CE/gf.w.) as well as the most antioxidant potential in all antioxidant capacity estimation assays including total antioxidant capacity (3.56 ± 0.01 mg AAE/gf.w.), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.89 ± 0.01 mg AAE/gf.w.), 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (1.36 ± 0.12 mg AAE/gf.w.), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.15 ± 0.01 mg AAE/gf.w.). LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS isolated and identified a total of 59 phenolic compounds, including flavonoids (21), phenolic acids (20), other phenolic compounds (12), lignans (5), and stilbenes (1) in all samples. According to HPLC-PDA quantification, the seed portions showed a significantly higher amount of phenolic compounds. These findings indicated that the waste of bell peppers can be a potential source of phenolic compounds, which can be utilized as antioxidant ingredients in foods and nutritional products.
Publication classificationC1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
ASCORBIC-ACIDBIOACTIVE COMPOUNDSCAPSICUM-ANNUUM L.CAROTENOIDSChemistryChemistry, MultidisciplinaryCONSTITUENTSEXTRACTSFRUITSLEAVESPhysical SciencesPRODUCTSREDScience & TechnologyNutritionComplementary and Integrative HealthSchool of Life and Environmental SciencesFaculty of Science Engineering and Built EnvironmentMaterials Engineering not elsewhere classifiedChemical Engineering not elsewhere classified