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Immune-inflammatory, metabolic and hormonal biomarkers are associated with the clinical forms and disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis: A follow-up study
journal contributionposted on 2022-09-28, 09:24 authored by W L de Carvalho Jennings Pereira, T Flauzino, D F Alfieri, S R Oliveira, A P Kallaur, A N C Simão, M A B Lozovoy, D R Kaimen-Maciel, Michael Maes, E M V Reiche
The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of immune-inflammatory, metabolic, hormonal, and oxidative stress biomarkers in disability progression (DP) and clinical forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The study evaluated 140 MS patients at admission (T0), and eight (T8) and 16 months (T16) later. The Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) and biomarkers were determined at T0, T8, and T16. A DP index (DPI) defined as an increase of ≥1 rank on the EDSS score indicated that 39.3% of the patients had significant DP. Quantification of the ordinal EDSS rank score was performed using optimal scaling methods. Categorical regression showed that the quantitative T16 EDSS score was predicted by T0 homocysteine (Hcy), T0 parathormone (PTH), T0 advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP) (all positively), low T0 vitamin D (<18.3 ng/mL) and T8 folic acid (<5 ng/mL) concentrations while higher T8 calcium concentrations (≥8.90 mg/dL) had protective effects. Linear Mixed Models showed that the change in EDSS from T0 to T16 was significantly associated with changes in IL-17 (positively) and IL-4 (inversely) independently from the significant effects of clinical MS forms, treatment modalities, smoking, age and systemic arterial hypertension. Hcy, PTH, IL-6, and IL-4 were positively associated with progressive versus relapsing-remitting MS while 25(OH)D was inversely associated. In conclusion, the ordinal EDSS scale is an adequate instrument to assess DP after category value estestimation. Aberrations in immune-inflammatory, metabolic and hormonal biomarkers are associated with DP and with the progressive form of MS.