Deakin University

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In vitro and in vivo characterization of a pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 isolated from domestic pigeons in victoria, australia 2011

journal contribution
posted on 2022-10-26, 04:28 authored by S Shan, K Bruce, V Stevens, F Y K Wong, J Wang, Dayna JohnsonDayna Johnson, D Middleton, K O’riley, S McCullough, D T Williams, J Bergfeld
Significant mortalities of racing pigeons occurred in Australia in late 2011 associated with a pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) infection. The causative agent, designated APMV-1/pigeon/Australia/3/2011 (P/Aus/3/11), was isolated from diagnostic specimens in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated eggs and was identified by a Newcastle Disease virus (NDV)-specific RT-PCR and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test using reference polyclonal antiserum specific for NDV. The P/Aus/3/11 strain was further classified as PPMV-1 using the HI test and monoclonal antibody 617/161 by HI and phylogenetic analysis of the fusion gene sequence. The isolate P/Aus/3/11 had a slow haemagglutin-elution rate and was inactivated within 45 min at 56◦ C. Cross HI tests generated an R value of 0.25, indicating a significant antigenic difference between P/Aus/3/11 and NDV V4 isolates. The mean death time (MDT) of SPF eggs infected with the P/Aus/3/11 isolate was 89.2 hr, characteristic of a mesogenic pathotype, consistent with other PPMV-1 strains. The plaque size of the P/Aus/3/11 isolate on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells was smaller than those of mesogenic and velogenic NDV reference strains, indicating a lower virulence phenotype in vitro and challenge of six-week-old SPF chickens did not induce clinical signs. However, sequence analysis of the fusion protein cleavage site demonstrated an112 RRQKRF117 motif, which is typical of a velogenic NDV pathotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the P/Aus/3/11 isolate belongs to a distinct subgenotype within class II genotype VI of avian paramyxovirus type 1. This is the first time this genotype has been detected in Australia causing disease in domestic pigeons and is the first time since 2002 that an NDV with potential for virulence has been detected in Australia.