mak-incorporationof-1994.pdf (2.65 MB)
Incorporation of excess wild-type and mutant tRNA(3Lys) into human immunodeficiency virus type 1
journal contributionposted on 1994-12-01, 00:00 authored by Y Huang, Johnson Mak, Q Cao, Z Li, M Wainberg, L Kleiman
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles produced in COS-7 cells transfected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA contain 8 molecules of tRNA(3Lys) per 2 molecules of genomic RNA and 12 molecules of tRNA1,2Lys per 2 molecules of genomic RNA. When COS-7 cells are transfected with a plasmid containing both HIV-1 proviral DNA and a human tRNA3Lys gene, there is a large increase in the amount of cytoplasmic tRNA3Lys per microgram of total cellular RNA, and the tRNA3Lys content in the virus increases from 8 to 17 molecules per 2 molecules of genomic RNA. However, the total number of tRNALys molecules per 2 molecules of genomic RNA remains constant at 20; i.e., the viral tRNA1,2Lys content decreases from 12 to 3 molecules per 2 molecules of genomic RNA. All detectable tRNA3Lys is aminoacylated in the cytoplasm of infected cells and deacylated in the virus. When COS-7 cells are transfected with a plasmid containing both HIV-1 proviral DNA and a mutant amber suppressor tRNA3Lys gene (in which the anticodon is changed from TTT to CTA), there is also a large increase in the relative concentration of cytoplasmic tRNA3Lys, and the tRNA3Lys content in the virus increases from 8 to 15 molecules per 2 molecules of genomic RNA, with a decrease in viral tRNA1,2Lys from 12 to 5 molecules per 2 molecules of genomic RNA. Thus, the total number of molecules of tRNALys in the virion remains at 20. The alteration of the anticodon has little effect on the viral packaging of this mutant tRNA in spite of the fact that it no longer contains the modified base mcm 5s2U at position 34, and its ability to be aminoacylated is significantly impaired compared with that of wild-type tRNA3Lys. Viral particles which have incorporated either excess wild-type tRNA3Lys or mutant suppressor tRNA3Lys show no differences in viral infectivity compared with wild-type HIV-1.