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Inflammation and nitro-oxidative stress in current suicidal attempts and current suicidal ideation: a systematic review and meta-analysis
journal contributionposted on 2023-02-23, 04:39 authored by A Vasupanrajit, K Jirakran, C Tunvirachaisakul, M Solmi, Michael Maes
A meta-analysis showed a significant association between activated immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative (IO&NS) pathways and suicide attempts (SA). There is no data on whether recent suicidal ideation (SI) is accompanied by activated IO&NS pathways and whether there are differences between recent SA and SI. The current study searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, for articles published from inception until May 10, 2021, and systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the association between recent SA/SI (<3 months) and IO&NS biomarkers. We included studies which compared psychiatric patients with and without SA and SI and controls (either healthy controls or patients without SA/SI) and used meta-analysis (random-effect model with restricted maximum-likelihood) to delineate effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Our search included 59 studies comprising 4.034 SA/SI cases and 12.377 controls. Patients with SA/SI showed activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.299; CI: 0.200; 0.397) when compared to controls. The immune profiles were more strongly associated with SA than with SI, particularly when compared to healthy controls, as evidenced by activated IO&NS (SMD: 0.796; CI: 0.503; 1.089), immune (SMD: 1.409; CI: 0.637; 1.462), inflammatory (SMD: 1.200; CI: 0.584; 1.816), and neurotoxic (SMD: 0.904; CI: 0.431; 1.378) pathways. The effects sizes of the IO&NS, immune and inflammatory profiles were significantly greater in SA than in SI. In conclusion: activated IO&NS pathways are associated with recent SA and SI, and inflammation, T helper-1 activation, nitro-oxidative stress, lowered neuroprotection, and increased neurotoxicity explain at least in part why psychiatric patients show increased suicidal behaviours, especially SA.