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Intravenous thrombolysis in stroke mimics: results from the SITS International Stroke Thrombolysis Register
journal contributionposted on 2019-08-01, 00:00 authored by B Keselman, C Cooray, G Vanhooren, P Bassi, D Consoli, P Nichelli, Anna PeetersAnna Peeters, D Sanak, A Zini, N Wahlgren, N Ahmed, M V Mazya
Background and purpose: Patients with stroke mimics (SM), i.e. conditions with stroke-like symptoms, may risk harm if treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Current guidelines state low risk of intracerebral hemorrhage based on studies comprising a total of <400 SM cases. We aimed to compare safety and outcomes following IVT between patients with acute ischaemic stroke and mimicking conditions. Methods: We included IVT-treated ischaemic stroke patients in the SITS International Stroke Thrombolysis Register 2003–2017, examined with magnetic resonance imaging 22–36 h after treatment. Outcomes were parenchymal hematoma (PH) after treatment, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) per Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST), Second European Co-operative Stroke Study (ECASS II) and National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Study (NINDS) criteria, death and modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) at 3 months. Results: Of 10 436 patients, 429 mimics (4.1%) were identified. The most common types were functional (30.8%), migraine (17.5%) and seizure (14.2%). Patients with mimics had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors and lower median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score [7 (interquartile range, 5–10) vs. 8 (5–14), P < 0.001]. Among mimics versus stroke patients, PH was seen in 1.2% vs. 5.1% (P < 0.001), SICH NINDS in 0.5% vs. 3.9% (P < 0.001), SICH ECASS II in 0.2% vs. 2.1% (P = 0.007) and SICH SITS-MOST in 0% vs. 0.5% (P = 0.28). Modified Rankin Scale score 0–1 at 3 months was present in 84.1% vs. 57.7% (P < 0.001) and death within 3 months in 2.6% vs. 5.4% (P = 0.028) of mimics and stroke patients, respectively. Conclusions: This large observational study indicated that PH and SICH following IVT in patients with SM are uncommon.