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Investigating non-fluorinated anions for sodium battery electrolytes based on ionic liquids
journal contributionposted on 01.10.2016, 00:00 authored by Andrew Basile, H Yoon, D R MacFarlane, Maria ForsythMaria Forsyth, Patrick HowlettPatrick Howlett
In order for sodium batteries to become a safe, lower cost option for large scale energy storage, minimising the price of all components is important. We report here on the application of a pyrrolidinium room temperature ionic liquid comprising the dicyanamide anion as a successful electrolyte system for sodium metal batteries that does not contain expensive fluorinated species. The effects of plating/stripping of sodium from Na metal electrodes has been investigated in a symmetrical Na | electrolyte | Na configuration at a current density of 10 μA cm− 2. Comparisons are drawn to reference organic electrolytes comprising propylene carbonate-fluoroethylene carbonate. Residual water molecules in the ionic liquid electrolyte are observed to have a significant effect upon the surface film and subsequent favourable plating/stripping behaviour of symmetrical cells and this is explored in detail. An increase of the moisture content from 90 ppm to 400 ppm impedes both electrodeposition and electrodissolution of the Na+/Na. This is investigated at Ni electrodes using cyclic voltammetry at different Na+-salt concentrations to further understand the mechanism.