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Investigational agents that protect pancreatic islet β-cells from failure

journal contribution
posted on 01.10.2005, 00:00 authored by Kathryn Aston-MourneyKathryn Aston-Mourney, J Proietto, S Andrikopoulos
Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion, which results in hyperglycaemia. This can then lead to diabetic complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Although insulin resistance may be present earlier in the progression of the disease, it is now generally accepted that it is the deterioration in insulin-secretory function that leads to hyperglycaemia. This reduction in insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetes is due to both islet β-cell dysfunction and death. Therefore, interventions that maintain the normal function and protect the pancreatic islet β-cells from death are crucial in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes so that plasma glucose levels may be maintained within the normal range. Recently, a number of compounds have been shown to protect β-cells from failure. This review examines the evidence that the existing therapies for Type 2 diabetes that were developed to lower plasma glucose (metformin) or improve insulin sensitivity (thiazolidinediones) may also have islet-protective function. Newer emerging therapeutic agents that are designed to increase the levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 not only stimulate insulin secretion but also appear to increase islet β-cell mass. Evidence will also be presented that the future of drug therapy designed to prevent β-cell failure should target the formation of advanced glycation end products and alleviate oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

History

Journal

Expert opinion on investigational drugs

Volume

14

Issue

10

Pagination

1241 - 1250

Publisher

Informa Healthcare

Location

England, London

ISSN

1744-7658

eISSN

1354-3784

Language

eng

Publication classification

C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2005, Ashley Publications Ltd.