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Laser subtractive and laser powder bed fusion of metals: review of process and production features

journal contribution
posted on 2023-02-21, 04:08 authored by M Khorasani, Ian GibsonIan Gibson, AH Ghasemi, E Hadavi, Bernard RolfeBernard Rolfe
Purpose The purpose of this study is, to compare laser-based additive manufacturing and subtractive methods. Laser-based manufacturing is a widely used, noncontact, advanced manufacturing technique, which can be applied to a very wide range of materials, with particular emphasis on metals. In this paper, the governing principles of both laser-based subtractive of metals (LB-SM) and laser-based powder bed fusion (LB-PBF) of metallic materials are discussed and evaluated in terms of performance and capabilities. Using the principles of both laser-based methods, some new potential hybrid additive manufacturing options are discussed. Design methodology approach Production characteristics, such as surface quality, dimensional accuracy, material range, mechanical properties and applications, are reviewed and discussed. The process parameters for both LB-PBF and LB-SM were identified, and different factors that caused defects in both processes are explored. Advantages, disadvantages and limitations are explained and analyzed to shed light on the process selection for both additive and subtractive processes. Findings The performance of subtractive and additive processes is highly related to the material properties, such as diffusivity, reflectivity, thermal conductivity as well as laser parameters. LB-PBF has more influential factors affecting the quality of produced parts and is a more complex process. Both LB-SM and LB-PBF are flexible manufacturing methods that can be applied to a wide range of materials; however, they both suffer from low energy efficiency and production rate. These may be useful when producing highly innovative parts detailed, hollow products, such as medical implants. Originality value This paper reviews the literature for both LB-PBF and LB-SM; nevertheless, the main contributions of this paper are twofold. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is one of the first to discuss the effect of the production process (both additive and subtractive) on the quality of the produced components. Also, some options for the hybrid capability of both LB-PBF and LB-SM are suggested to produce complex components with the desired macro- and microscale features.

History

Journal

Rapid Prototyping Journal

Volume

29

Pagination

1-24

Location

Bingley, Eng.

ISSN

1355-2546

eISSN

1758-7670

Language

eng

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Issue

5

Publisher

Emerald Publishing Limited

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