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Linear and nonlinear associations between physical activity, body composition, and multimorbidity over 10 years among community-dwelling older adults

Version 2 2024-06-06, 09:56
Version 1 2021-04-01, 11:42
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-06, 09:56 authored by SA Balogun, D Aitken, F Wu, D Scott, G Jones, T Winzenberg
Abstract Background This study aims to describe the relationships between physical activity (PA), body composition, and multimorbidity over 10 years. Method Participants (N = 373; 49% women; average age 61.3 ± 6.7 years) were followed for 10 years. Multimorbidity was defined by self-report as the presence of 2 or more of 12 listed chronic conditions. PA (steps per day) at baseline was assessed by pedometer, handgrip strength (HGS) by dynamometer, and appendicular lean mass (ALM) and total body fat mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Relative HGS and ALM were calculated by dividing each body mass index (BMI). Regression cubic splines were used to assess evidence for a nonlinear relationship. Results After 10 years, 45% participants had multimorbidity. There was a nonlinear relationship between PA and multimorbidity—PA was associated with lower multimorbidity risk among individuals who engaged in <10 000 steps/d (relative risk [RR] = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.97, per 1 000 steps/d), but not among those who participated in ≥10 000 steps/d (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.09, per 1 000 steps/d). Higher BMI (RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08, per kg/m2) and fat mass (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.04, per kg), and lower relative HGS (RR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94, per 0.1 psi/kg/m2) and ALM (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98, per 0.1 kg/kg/m2) were linearly associated with a higher risk of multimorbidity. Absolute HGS and ALM were not significantly associated with multimorbidity. Discussion These findings highlight the potential clinical importance of maintaining adequate levels of PA and of reducing adiposity and maintaining muscle function for minimizing the risk of multimorbidity in older adults.

History

Journal

Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Volume

76

Pagination

2015-2020

Location

United States

ISSN

1079-5006

eISSN

1758-535X

Language

English

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Issue

11

Publisher

OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC