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Maternal plasma vitamin D levels across pregnancy are not associated with neonatal birthweight: findings from an Australian cohort study of low-risk pregnant women
journal contributionposted on 2023-02-20, 03:59 authored by Paige van der PligtPaige van der Pligt, SJ Ellery, DL de Guingand, Gavin AbbottGavin Abbott, Paul Della GattaPaul Della Gatta, Robin DalyRobin Daly
Background: In utero environments can be highly influential in contributing to the development of offspring obesity. Specifically, vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and child health outcomes, however its relationship with offspring obesity remains unclear. We assessed maternal vitamin D status across pregnancy, change in plasma vitamin D concentrations and associations with neonatal birthweight, macrosomia and large for gestational age. Methods: Women (n = 221) aged 18–40 years with singleton (low-risk) pregnancies, attending antenatal clinics at a tertiary-level maternity hospital were recruited at 10–20 weeks gestation. Medical history, maternal weight and blood samples at three antenatal clinic visits were assessed; early (15 ± 3 weeks), mid (27 ± 2 weeks) and late (36 ± 1 weeks) gestation. Maternal 25(OH)D was analysed from stored plasma samples via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Neonatal growth parameters were collected at birth. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression assessed associations of maternal vitamin D with birthweight, macrosomia and large for gestational age. Results: Mean plasma 25(OH)D increased from early (83.8 ± 22.6 nmol/L) to mid (96.5 ± 28.9 nmol/L) and late (100.8 ± 30.8 nmol/L) gestation. Overall 98% of women were taking vitamin D-containing supplements throughout their pregnancy. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 6.5%, 6.3% and 6.8% at early, mid and late pregnancy respectively. No statistically significant association was found between 25(OH)D or vitamin D deficiency at any timepoint with neonatal birthweight, macrosomia or large for gestational age. Conclusions: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was low in this cohort of pregnant women and likely related to the high proportion of women taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy. Maternal 25(OH)D did not impact offspring birth weight or birth size. Future studies in high-risk pregnant populations are needed to further assess maternal vitamin D status and factors in utero which promote early life obesity.
Birth sizeBirthweightMacrosomiaObesityPregnancyVitamin DInfant, NewbornChildFemaleHumansBirth WeightCohort StudiesPregnant WomenFetal MacrosomiaTandem Mass SpectrometryAustraliaVitaminsVitamin D DeficiencyPregnancy ComplicationsParturitionPerinatal Period - Conditions Originating in Perinatal PeriodPediatricInfant MortalityNutritionConditions Affecting the Embryonic and Fetal PeriodsClinical ResearchPreventionPreterm, Low Birth Weight and Health of the Newborn3.3 Nutrition and chemoprevention3 Prevention of disease and conditions, and promotion of well-beingReproductive health and childbirth3 Good Health and Well BeingPublic Health and Health Services not elsewhere classifiedNursing not elsewhere classifiedPaediatrics and Reproductive Medicine not elsewhere classified