Measurement of postprandial glucose fluxes in response to acute and chronic endurance exercise in healthy humans
journal contributionposted on 2018-05-01, 00:00 authored by Dale Morrison, Greg KowalskiGreg Kowalski, E Grespan, A Mari, Clinton BruceClinton Bruce, Glenn WadleyGlenn Wadley
The effect of endurance exercise on enhancing insulin sensitivity and glucose flux has been well established with techniques such as the hyperinsulinemic clamp. Although informative, such techniques do not emulate the physiological postprandial state, and it remains unclear how exercise improves postprandial glycaemia. Accordingly, combining mixed-meal tolerance testing and the triple-stable isotope glucose tracer approach, glucose fluxes [rates of meal glucose appearance (Ra), disposal (Rd), and endogenous glucose production (EGP)] were determined following acute endurance exercise (1 h cycling; ~70% V̇o2max) and 4 wk of endurance training (cycling 5 days/wk). Training was associated with a modest increase in V̇o2max (~7%, P < 0.001). Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were reduced to the same extent following acute and chronic training. Interestingly, this was not accompanied by changes to rates of meal Ra, Rd, or degree of EGP suppression. Glucose clearance (Rd relative to prevailing glucose) was, however, enhanced with acute and chronic exercise. Furthermore, the duration of EGP suppression was shorter with acute and chronic exercise, with EGP returning toward fasting levels more rapidly than pretraining conditions. These findings suggest that endurance exercise influences the efficiency of the glucoregulatory system, where pretraining rates of glucose disposal and production were achieved at lower glucose and insulin levels. Notably, there was no influence of chronic training over and above that of a single exercise bout, providing further evidence that glucoregulatory benefits of endurance exercise are largely attributed to the residual effects of the last exercise bout.