Measuring the stigma surrounding type 2 diabetes: Development and validation of the type 2 diabetes stigma assessment scale (DSAS-2)
journal contributionposted on 2016-01-01, 00:00 authored by J L Browne, Adriana Ventura, Kylie Mosely, Jane SpeightJane Speight
OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a self-report measure of perceived and experienced stigma for use with adults with type 2 diabetes: the Type 2 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-2). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS An item pool was drafted based on qualitative data from 25 adults with type 2 diabetes and content from other health-related stigma questionnaires. Thirteen adults with type 2 diabetes completed 57 draft diabetes stigma items and participated in cognitive debriefing interviews. Based on participant feedback, the pool was reduced to 48 items with a 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). A total of 1,064 adults with type 2 diabetes completed a survey including these 48 items and other validated measures. Data were subject to principal components analysis and Spearman ρ correlations. RESULTS The scale was reduced to 19 items, with an unforced three-factor solution indicative of three subscales: Treated Differently (6 items, α = 0.88), Blame and Judgment (7 items, α = 0.90), and Self-stigma (6 items, α = 0.90). A forced one-factor solution supported the calculation of a total score (α = 0.95). Satisfactory concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity were demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS The 19-item DSAS-2 is a reliable and valid measure of type 2 diabetes stigma. A rigorous design and validation process has resulted in a relatively briefmeasure of perceived and experienced stigma in type 2 diabetes. The novel scale has satisfactory psychometric properties and is now available to facilitate much-needed research in this field.