Deakin University

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Menstruation distress is strongly associated with hormone-immune-metabolic biomarkers

journal contribution
posted on 2022-09-28, 10:40 authored by C Roomruangwong, S Sirivichayakul, A K Matsumoto, A P Michelin, L de Oliveira Semeão, J V de Lima Pedrão, D S Barbosa, E G Moreira, Michael Maes
Objective: To examine the associations between menstruation features and symptoms and hormone-immune-metabolic biomarkers. Methods: Forty-one women completed questionnaires assessing characteristic menstruation symptoms, duration of menstrual cycle and number of pads used/day and completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) during the consecutive days of their menstrual cycle. Menses-related symptoms (MsRS) were computed from the sum of 10 pre- and post-menses symptoms and the menstruation blood and duration index (MBDI) was computed based on the daily number of pads and duration of menses. We assayed serum levels of various biomarkers at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the subjects' menstrual cycle. Results: MBDI was significantly associated with a) MsRS including low abdominal cramps, and gastro-intestinal (GI) and pain symptoms (positively); b) plasma levels of haptoglobin (Hp), CCL5, insulin growth factor (IGF)-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)1 (all positively); and c) estradiol and paraoxonase (PON)1 arylesterase activity (both inversely). MsRS were significantly predicted by CCL5 and IGF-1 (both positively) and progesterone (inversely). Low-abdominal cramps, and gastro-intestinal and pain symptoms were associated with lower progesterone levels. The MBDI+MsRS score was significantly predicted by the cumulative effects of (in descending order of importance): Hp, IGF-1, PON1 arylesterase, estradiol and PAI. Conclusion: Menstruation-related features including estimated blood loss, duration of menses, cramps, pain, and gastro-intestinal symptoms are associated with hormone-immune-metabolic biomarkers, which mechanistically may explain those features. Future research should construct a cross-validated algorithm using MBDI+MsRS features in a larger study group to delineate a useful case-definition of menstruation-related distress.



Journal of Psychosomatic Research