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Mental Health During Late Pregnancy and Postpartum in Mothers With and Without Type 1 Diabetes: The ENDIA Study

journal contribution
posted on 2022-05-01, 00:00 authored by Madeleine Hall, Helena Oakey, Megan A S Penno, Kelly McGorm, Amanda J Anderson, Pat Ashwood, Peter G Colman, Maria E Craig, Elizabeth A Davis, Mark Harris, Leonard C Harrison, Aveni Haynes, Claire Morbey, Richard O Sinnott, Georgia Soldatos, Peter J Vuillermin, John M Wentworth, Rebecca L Thomson, Jennifer J Couper, Ki Wook Kim, Grant Morahan, William D Rawlinson, Peter VuillerminPeter Vuillermin, James D Brown, William Hu, Dao Huynh, Kelly J McGorm, Kelly Watson, Yeon Park, Emma Hamilton-Williams, Sarah Beresford, Samantha Bertram, Debra Bezuidenhout, Susan Brandrick, Carlie Butterworth, Jacki Catteau, Nakita Clements, Kyana Gartrell, Helen Griffiths, Alison Gwiazdzinski, Candice Hall, Gail Harper, Amanda Hulley, Mikayla Hoffman, Renee Kludas, Christine Monagle, Belinda Moore, Benjamin Ramoso, Alison Roberts, Georgina Thompson, Alexandra Tully, Isabelle Vicary, Rosemary Wood, Rachel Battersby, Teela Jullie, Stephanie Savio, Esther Bandala Sanchez, Naiara Bediaga, Chris Hope, Tim Sadlon, Alexandra Roth Schulze, Sabrina Binkowski, Bek Brittain, Minh Bui, Dylan Foskett, Dexing Huang, Stuti Kapadia, Asma Minhaj, Gaetano Naselli, Katrina Ngui, Trung Nguyen, Emily Wood, Cynthia Yau, Leanne Cavenett

Pregnancy and type 1 diabetes are each associated with increased anxiety and depression, but the combined impact on well-being is unresolved. We compared the mental health of women with and without type 1 diabetes during pregnancy and postpartum and examined the relationship between mental health and glycemic control.

Participants were women enrolled from 2016 to 2020 in the Environmental Determinants of Islet Autoimmunity (ENDIA) study, a pregnancy to birth prospective cohort following children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were completed during the third trimester (T3) (median [interquartile range] 34 [32, 36] weeks) and postpartum (14 [13, 16] weeks) by 737 women (800 pregnancies) with (n = 518) and without (n = 282) type 1 diabetes.

EPDS and PSS scores did not differ between women with and without type 1 diabetes during T3 and postpartum. EPDS scores were marginally higher in T3: predicted mean (95% CI) 5.7 (5.4, 6.1) than postpartum: 5.3 (5.0, 5.6), independent of type 1 diabetes status (P = 0.01). HbA1c levels in type 1 diabetes were 6.3% [5.8, 6.9%] in T3 and did not correlate with EPDS or PSS scores. Reported use of psychotropic medications was similar in women with (n = 44 of 518 [8%]) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 17 of 282 [6%]), as was their amount of physical activity.

Overall, mental health in late pregnancy and postpartum did not differ between women with and without type 1 diabetes, and mental health scores were not correlated with glycemic control.



Diabetes Care






1082 - 1090


American Diabetes Association


Arlington, Va.







Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal