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Microbiota and Metabolite Profiling Combined With Integrative Analysis for Differentiating Cheeses of Varying Ripening Ages

journal contribution
posted on 2023-02-21, 04:12 authored by R Afshari, CJ Pillidge, DA Dias, AM Osborn, H Gill
Cheese maturation and flavor development results from complex interactions between milk substrates, cheese microbiota and their metabolites. In this study, bacterial 16S rRNA-gene sequencing, untargeted metabolomics (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and data integration analyses were used to characterize and differentiate commercial Cheddar cheeses of varying maturity made by the same and different manufacturers. Microbiota and metabolite compositions varied between cheeses of different ages and brands, and could be used to distinguish the cheeses. Individual amino acids and carboxylic acids were positively correlated with the ripening age for some brands. Integration and Random Forest analyses revealed numerous associations between specific bacteria and metabolites including a previously undescribed positive correlation between Thermus and phenylalanine and a negative correlation between Streptococcus and cholesterol. Together these results suggest that multi-omics analyses has the potential to be used for better understanding the relationships between cheese microbiota and metabolites during ripening and for discovering biomarkers for validating cheese age and brand authenticity.

History

Journal

Frontiers in Microbiology

Volume

11

Pagination

592060-

Location

Switzerland

ISSN

1664-302X

eISSN

1664-302X

Language

eng

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA