Microdialysis and microperfusion electrodes in neurologic disease monitoring
journal contributionposted on 2021-01-01, 00:00 authored by Luke StanglerLuke Stangler, Abbas KouzaniAbbas Kouzani, Kevin Bennet, Ludovic DumeeLudovic Dumee, Michael BerkMichael Berk, G A Worrell, S Steele, T C Burns, C L Howe
AbstractContemporary biomarker collection techniques in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have to date offered only modest clinical insights into neurologic diseases such as epilepsy and glioma. Conversely, the collection of human electroencephalography (EEG) data has long been the standard of care in these patients, enabling individualized insights for therapy and revealing fundamental principles of human neurophysiology. Increasing interest exists in simultaneously measuring neurochemical biomarkers and electrophysiological data to enhance our understanding of human disease mechanisms. This review compares microdialysis, microperfusion, and implanted EEG probe architectures and performance parameters. Invasive consequences of probe implantation are also investigated along with the functional impact of biofouling. Finally, previously developed microdialysis electrodes and microperfusion electrodes are reviewed in preclinical and clinical settings. Critically, current and precedent microdialysis and microperfusion probes lack the ability to collect neurochemical data that is spatially and temporally coincident with EEG data derived from depth electrodes. This ultimately limits diagnostic and therapeutic progress in epilepsy and glioma research. However, this gap also provides a unique opportunity to create a dual-sensing technology that will provide unprecedented insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of human neurologic disease.