File(s) under permanent embargo
Modeling gene-environment interaction in longitudinal data : risk for neuroticism due to interaction between maternal care and the Dopamine 4 Receptor gene (DRD4)
journal contributionposted on 2011-03-01, 00:00 authored by P Badcock, E Moore, E Williamson, Michael BerkMichael Berk, Lana WilliamsLana Williams, O Bjerkeset, H Nordahl, G Patton, Craig OlssonCraig Olsson
The purpose of this study was to investigate risk for neuroticism due to the joint action of low maternal care and compromised mesocorticolimbic ‘reward’ system function linked to a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the dopamine 4 receptor gene (DRD4). Data were drawn from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of the health and well-being of 2,000 young Australians followed from adolescence to young adulthood across 8 waves from 14- to 28-years. Genetic risk was defined by carriage of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele or derivative alleles 5, 6, and 8 (labeled 7R+). Neuroticism was assessed in adolescence and young adulthood. We observed an approximately fourfold increase in the odds of reporting neurotic symptoms in carriers of the 7R+ disposition who reported low maternal care compared with non-carriers who reported high maternal care. The percentage of risk attributable to mechanisms in which both factors played a role was 35%. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for prevention.