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Molecular Basis of Gene-Gene Interaction: Cyclic Cross-Regulation of Gene Expression and Post-GWAS Gene-Gene Interaction Involved in Atrial Fibrillation

journal contribution
posted on 2023-11-02, 05:06 authored by Yufeng Huang, Chuchu Wang, Yufeng Yao, Xiaoyu Zuo, Shanshan Chen, Chengqi Xu, Hongfu Zhang, Qiulun Lu, Le Chang, Fan Wang, Pengxia Wang, Rongfeng Zhang, Zhenkun Hu, Qixue Song, Xiaowei Yang, Cong Li, Sisi Li, Yuanyuan Zhao, Qin Yang, Dan Yin, Xiaojing Wang, Wenxia Si, Xiuchun Li, Xin Xiong, Dan Wang, Yuan Huang, Chunyan Luo, Jia Li, Jingjing Wang, Jing Chen, Longfei Wang, Li Wang, Meng Han, Jian Ye, Feifei ChenFeifei Chen, Jingqiu Liu, Ying Liu, Gang Wu, Bo Yang, Xiang Cheng, Yuhua Liao, Yanxia Wu, Tie Ke, Qiuyun Chen, Xin Tu, Robert Elston, Shaoqi Rao, Yanzong Yang, Yunlong Xia, Qing K Wang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia at the clinic. Recent GWAS identified several variants associated with AF, but they account for <10% of heritability. Gene-gene interaction is assumed to account for a significant portion of missing heritability. Among GWAS loci for AF, only three were replicated in the Chinese Han population, including SNP rs2106261 (G/A substitution) in ZFHX3, rs2200733 (C/T substitution) near PITX2c, and rs3807989 (A/G substitution) in CAV1. Thus, we analyzed the interaction among these three AF loci. We demonstrated significant interaction between rs2106261 and rs2200733 in three independent populations and combined population with 2,020 cases/5,315 controls. Compared to non-risk genotype GGCC, two-locus risk genotype AATT showed the highest odds ratio in three independent populations and the combined population (OR=5.36 (95% CI 3.87-7.43), P=8.00×10-24). The OR of 5.36 for AATT was significantly higher than the combined OR of 3.31 for both GGTT and AACC, suggesting a synergistic interaction between rs2106261 and rs2200733. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) analysis also revealed significant interaction between rs2106261 and rs2200733 when exposed two copies of risk alleles (RERI=2.87, P<1.00×10-4) or exposed to one additional copy of risk allele (RERI=1.29, P<1.00×10-4). The INTERSNP program identified significant genotypic interaction between rs2106261 and rs2200733 under an additive by additive model (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.74-0.97, P=0.02). Mechanistically, PITX2c negatively regulates expression of miR-1, which negatively regulates expression of ZFHX3, resulting in a positive regulation of ZFHX3 by PITX2c; ZFHX3 positively regulates expression of PITX2C, resulting in a cyclic loop of cross-regulation between ZFHX3 and PITX2c. Both ZFHX3 and PITX2c regulate expression of NPPA, TBX5 and NKX2.5. These results suggest that cyclic cross-regulation of gene expression is a molecular basis for gene-gene interactions involved in genetics of complex disease traits.

History

Journal

PLOS GENETICS

Volume

11

Article number

ARTN e1005393

Location

United States

ISSN

1553-7404

eISSN

1553-7404

Language

English

Editor/Contributor(s)

Williams SM

Issue

8

Publisher

PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE