N-Acetylcysteine improves mitochondrial function and ameliorates behavioral deficits in the R6/1 mouse model of Huntington's disease
journal contributionposted on 2015-01-01, 00:00 authored by D J Wright, T Renoir, Zoe SmithZoe Smith, A E Frazier, Paul FrancisPaul Francis, D R Thorburn, Sean McgeeSean Mcgee, A J Hannan, Laura GrayLaura Gray
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, involving psychiatric, cognitive and motor symptoms, caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. We hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may reduce both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress through its actions on glutamate reuptake and antioxidant capacity. The R6/1 transgenic mouse model of HD was used to investigate the effects of NAC on HD pathology. It was found that chronic NAC administration delayed the onset and progression of motor deficits in R6/1 mice, while having an antidepressant-like effect on both R6/1 and wild-type mice. A deficit in the astrocytic glutamate transporter protein, GLT-1, was found in R6/1 mice. However, this deficit was not ameliorated by NAC, implying that the therapeutic effect of NAC is not due to rescue of the GLT-1 deficit and associated glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Assessment of mitochondrial function in the striatum and cortex revealed that R6/1 mice show reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity specific to the striatum. This deficit was rescued by chronic treatment with NAC. There was a selective increase in markers of oxidative damage in mitochondria, which was rescued by NAC. In conclusion, NAC is able to delay the onset of motor deficits in the R6/1 model of Huntington's disease and it may do so by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, NAC shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent in HD. Furthermore, our data suggest that NAC may also have broader antidepressant efficacy.
SeasonArticle no: e492
Pagination1 - 10
PublisherNature Publishing Group
LocationNew York, N. Y.
Publication classificationC Journal article; C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice2015, Nature Publishing Group
AcetylcysteineAnimalsBehavior, AnimalBrainDisease Models, AnimalDisease ProgressionExcitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2Free Radical ScavengersGaitHuntington DiseaseMiceMice, TransgenicMitochondriaMotor ActivityOrgan SizeOxidative StressScience & TechnologyLife Sciences & BiomedicinePsychiatryMOLECULAR-MECHANISMSGLUTAMATE TRANSPORTOXIDATIVE DAMAGENEURONAL DEATHMOTOR DEFICITSCYSTINE UPTAKEUP-REGULATIONGENEGLUTATHIONEEXPRESSION