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Neural stimulation systems for the control of refractory epilepsy: a review

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journal contribution
posted on 2019-01-01, 00:00 authored by M Bigelow, Abbas KouzaniAbbas Kouzani
Epilepsy affects nearly 1% of the world’s population. A third of epilepsy patients suffer from a kind of epilepsy that cannot be controlled by
current medications. For those where surgery is not an option, neurostimulation may be the only alternative to bring relief, improve quality of life, and avoid secondary injury to these patients. Until
recently, open loop neurostimulation was the only alternative for these patients. However, for those whose epilepsy is applicable, the medical approval of the responsive neural stimulation and the closed loop vagal nerve stimulation systems have been a step forward in the battle against uncontrolled epilepsy. Nonetheless, improvements can be made to the existing systems and alternative systems can be developed to further improve the quality of life of sufferers of the debilitating condition. In this paper, we first present a brief overview of epilepsy as a disease. Next,
we look at the current state of biomarker research in respect to sensing and predicting epileptic seizures. Then, we present the current state of open loop neural stimulation systems. We follow this by investigating the currently approved, and some of the recent experimental, closed loop systems documented in the literature. Finally, we provide discussions on the current state of neural stimulation systems for controlling epilepsy, and directions for future studies.



Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation



Article number



1 - 17




Berlin, Germany





Publication classification

C Journal article; C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal