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Nonpharmacological interventions for the prevention of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
journal contributionposted on 2019-11-01, 00:00 authored by K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, S Shariful Islam, M Hasan, S Hossain, R Mamun, S Shafique, A Mamun, M Khalequzzaman, F Haseen, A Rahman, I Anwar, Shariful IslamShariful Islam
Hypertension is the single biggest cause of various cardiovascular complications and at the same time one of the most preventable phenomena. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are facing increasing prevalence of hypertension which is imposing a huge burden on morbidity, premature mortality, and catastrophic health expenditure. This systematic review searched for the nonpharmacological interventions for prevention of hypertension among normotensive people in LMICs considering the period 1990–2016. This review has been conducted following standard methodology of Cochrane review involving two independent reviewers in screening, quality appraisal, and data extraction. Narrative synthesis of included articles was demonstrated using tables and meta-analysis was conducted to pool the estimates of studies which fulfilled the criteria. Total seven trials were included in the review with 6046 participants from eight LMICs. Two cluster randomized trials were pooled and there was a statistically significant effect (Systolic Blood Pressure: mean difference −2.35 [95% CI: −4.31 to −0.38], Diastolic Blood Pressure: mean difference −2.11 [95% CI: −3.20 to −1.02]) of home based health education in reducing blood pressure. Three individual studies reported reduction of blood pressure as a result of restricted dietary sodium intake. None of the studies was appraised as low risk of bias due to poor methodological quality. Non-pharmacological interventions can play important role in preventing the development of hypertension among normotensive people. Further trials with longer follow-up period and robust methods are recommended for getting stronger evidence on these interventions.