Deakin University

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Nucleation, growth and breakage phenomena in agitated wet granulation processes: a review

journal contribution
posted on 2001-06-04, 00:00 authored by S M Iveson, J D Litster, Karen HapgoodKaren Hapgood, B J Ennis
Wet agglomeration processes have traditionally been considered an empirical art, with great difficulties in predicting and explaining observed behaviour. Industry has faced a range of problems including large recycle ratios, poor product quality control, surging and even the total failure of scale up from laboratory to full scale production. However, in recent years there has been a rapid advancement in our understanding of the fundamental processes that control granulation behaviour and product properties. This review critically evaluates the current understanding of the three key areas of wet granulation processes: wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, and breakage and attrition. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that there now exist theoretical models which predict or explain the majority of experimentally observed behaviour. Provided that the correct material properties and operating parameters are known, it is now possible to make useful predictions about how a material will granulate. The challenge that now faces us is to transfer these theoretical developments into industrial practice. Standard, reliable methods need to be developed to measure the formulation properties that control granulation behaviour, such as contact angle and dynamic yield strength. There also needs to be a better understanding of the flow patterns, mixing behaviour and impact velocities in different types of granulation equipment.



Powder technology






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Elsevier Science BV


Amsterdam, The Netherlands





Publication classification

C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2001, Elsevier Science B.V.