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Obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertensive microvascular disease: a cross-sectional observational cohort study

Version 2 2024-06-19, 15:11
Version 1 2023-02-10, 05:10
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-19, 15:11 authored by S Chew, D Colville, Ana HutchinsonAna Hutchinson, P Canty, L Hodgson, J Savige
AbstractHypertensive microvascular disease is associated with an increased risk of diastolic heart failure, vascular dementia and progressive renal impairment. This study examined whether individuals with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) had more retinal hypertensive microvascular disease than those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hospital controls. This was a single-centre, cross-sectional, observational study of participants recruited consecutively from a general respiratory clinic and a general medical clinic. OSA was diagnosed on overnight polysomnography study (apnoea:hypopnoea index ≥ 5), and controls with COPD had a forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (forced expiratory ratio) < 70%. Individuals with both OSA and COPD were excluded. Hospital controls had no COPD on respiratory function testing and no OSA on specialist physician questioning. Study participants completed a medical questionnaire, and underwent resting BP measurement, and retinal photography with a non-mydriatic camera. Images were deidentified and graded for microvascular retinopathy (Wong and Mitchell classification), and arteriole and venular calibre using a semiautomated method at a grading centre. Individuals with OSA (n = 79) demonstrated a trend to a higher mean arterial pressure than other hospital patients (n = 143) (89.2 ± 8.9 mmHg, p = 0.02), and more microvascular retinopathy (p < 0.001), and narrower retinal arterioles (134.2 ± 15.9 μm and 148.0 ± 16.2 μm respectively, p < 0.01). Microvascular retinopathy and arteriolar narrowing were still more common in OSA than hospital controls, after adjusting for age, BMI, mean arterial pressure, smoking history and dyslipidaemia (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). Individuals with OSA demonstrated a trend to a higher mean arterial pressure than those with COPD (n = 132, 93.2 ± 12.2 mmHg and 89.7 ± 12.8 mmHg respectively, p = 0.07), and more microvascular retinopathy (p = 0.0001) and narrower arterioles (134.2 ± 15.9 and 152.3 ± 16.8, p < 0.01). Individuals with OSA alone had more systemic microvascular disease than those with COPD alone or other hospital patients without OSA and COPD, despite being younger in age.

History

Journal

Scientific Reports

Volume

12

Article number

13350

Pagination

13350-

Location

England

ISSN

2045-2322

eISSN

2045-2322

Language

en

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Issue

1

Publisher

Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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