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Phenyl-type and C1 stationary phases for environmentally friendlier chromatography
journal contributionposted on 2009-11-01, 00:00 authored by Paul Stevenson, A Soliven, G Dennis, R Shalliker
C1 and phenyl-type stationary phases were assessed in terms of their environmental impact on separations using as test solutes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Methanol (MeOH) and acetonitrile (ACN) mobile-phase gradients were employed. These stationary phases were examined to determine if different physical and chemical properties possessed by these surfaces decreased the organic solvent consumption, and yet maintained peak capacity. The cumulative energy demand (CED) was used to gauge the environmental impact of the separations. The separation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon test mixture using current methodologies (i.e. a C18/ACN combination) had a CED of 1.13 MJ-eq, and a peak capacity of 27 peaks (resolving 7 of 12 peak pairs with Rs>1). In comparison, a butyl phenyl stationary phase with a methanol mobile phase had a peak capacity of 26, but with a CED of 0.670 MJ-eq. Monolithic columns containing C18 and C1 phases were also tested. A monolithic C18 column with MeOH had the lowest CED at 0.675 MJ-eq, a peak capacity of 28 peaks and good resolving power (resolving ten peak pairs with Rs>1), suggesting that this is a viable option with respect to reducing environmental impact for these types of analyses.