Deakin University

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Predictors of mortality among HIV infected children on anti-retroviral therapy in Mekelle Hospital, Northern Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study

journal contribution
posted on 2022-10-30, 23:19 authored by A Gebremedhin, S Gebremariam, F Haile, B Weldearegawi, C Decotelli
Background: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1996 improved the longevity and wellbeing of peoples living with HIV in the industrialized world including children. This survival benefit of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing HIV related deaths has been well studied in the developed world. In resource-poor settings, where such treatment was started recently, there is inadequate information about impact of ART on the survival of patients especially in children. So, this study aims to investigate predictors of mortality of children on ART. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify predictors of mortality among children on HAART. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 432 children who initiated antiretroviral therapy from June 2006 to June 2011 at pediatrics ART clinic in Mekelle Hospital, Northern-Ethiopia. Data were extracted from electronic and paper based medical records database and analyzed using Kaplan Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard model to identify independent predictors of children's mortality on ART. Results: The total time contributed by the study participants were 14,235 child-months with median follow up of 36 months. The mortality rate of this cohort was 1.40 deaths per 1000 child-months or 16.85 deaths per 1000 child-years. Age less than 18 months [ Adj.HR (95% CI) = (4.39(1.15-17.41)], CD4 percentage <10 [Adj.HR (95% CI) = 2.98(1.12-7.94)], WHO clinical stage (III&IV) [Adj.HR (95% CI) = 4.457(1.01-19.66)], chronic diarrhea[Adj.HR (95% CI) = 4.637(1.50-14.31)] and hemoglobin < 8 g/dl[Adj.HR (95% CI) = 3.77(1.29-10.98)] all at baseline were significantly and independently associated with survival of children on ART. Conclusions: Mortality of children on ART was low and factors that affect mortality of children on ART were age less than 18 months, lower CD4 percentage, advanced WHO clinical stage (III&IV), presence of chronic diarrhea and lower hemoglobin level all at baseline. The high early mortality rate would support the value of an earlier treatment start before development of signs of immunodeficiency syndrome despite the method of HIV diagnosis and WHO stage. © 2013 Gebremedhin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.



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