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Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) in Feral and Farmed Wild Boars in Xinjiang, Northwest China
journal contributionposted on 2023-07-17, 05:07 authored by JY Wu, XX Meng, YR Wei, H Bolati, EHY Lau, XY Yang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes infections in humans and a wide range of animal hosts. Wild boar is an important natural reservoir of HEV genotypes 3-6 (HEV-3-HEV-6), but comparative analysis of HEV infections in both feral and farmed wild boars remains limited. In this study, samples from 599 wild boars were collected during 2017-2020, including 121 feral wild boars (collected 121 fecal, 121 serum, and 89 liver samples) and 478 farmed wild boars (collected 478 fecal and 478 serum samples). The presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by the HEV-IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. HEV RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), targeting the partial ORF1 genes from fecal and liver samples, and the obtained genes were further genotyped by phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that 76.2% (95% CI 72.1-79.9) of farmed wild boars tested anti-HEV IgG seropositive, higher than that in feral wild boars (42.1%, 95% CI 33.2-51.5, p < 0.001). HEV seropositivity increased with age. Wild boar HEV infection presented a significant geographical difference (p < 0.001), but not between sex (p = 0.656) and age (p = 0.347). HEV RNA in fecal samples was detected in 13 (2.2%, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) out of 599 wild boars: 0.8% (95% CI 0.0-4.5, 1/121) of feral wild boars and 2.5% (95% CI 1.3-4.3, 12/478) of farmed wild boars. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all these viruses belonged to genotype HEV-4, and further grouped into sub-genotypes HEV-4a, HEV-4d, and HEV-4h, of which HEV-4a was first discovered in the wild boar populations in China. Our results suggested that farms could be a setting for amplification of HEV. The risk of HEV zoonotic transmission via rearing and consumption of farmed wild boars should be further assessed.
Hepatitis E virusgenotype 4phylogenetic analysisprevalencewild boarSwineAnimalsHumansSus scrofaPrevalencePhylogenyFarmsRNA, ViralSwine DiseasesHepatitis EHepatitis AntibodiesChina3107 Microbiology31 Biological SciencesLiver DiseaseDigestive DiseasesGeneticsEmerging Infectious DiseasesInfection3 Good Health and Well BeingMicrobiology