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Pro-oxidative synergic bactericidal effect of NO: kinetics and inhibition by nitroxides

journal contribution
posted on 2014-02-01, 00:00 authored by R Yadav, Yuval Samuni, A Abramson, R Zeltser, N Casap, T K Kabiraj, M L Banach, U Samuni
NO plays diverse roles in physiological and pathological processes, occasionally resulting in opposing effects, particularly in cells subjected to oxidative stress. NO mostly protects eukaryotes against oxidative injury, but was demonstrated to kill prokaryotes synergistically with H2O2. This could be a promising therapeutic avenue. However, recent conflicting findings were reported describing dramatic protective activity of NO. The previous studies of NO effects on prokaryotes applied a transient oxidative stress while arbitrarily checking the residual bacterial viability after 30 or 60min and ignoring the process kinetics. If NO-induced synergy and the oxidative stress are time-dependent, the elucidation of the cell killing kinetics is essential, particularly for survival curves exhibiting a "shoulder" sometimes reflecting sublethal damage as in the linear-quadratic survival models. We studied the kinetics of NO synergic effects on H2O2-induced killing of microbial pathogens. A synergic pro-oxidative activity toward gram-negative and gram-positive cells is demonstrated even at sub-μM/min flux of NO. For certain strains, the synergic effect progressively increased with the duration of cell exposure, and the linear-quadratic survival model best fit the observed survival data. In contrast to the failure of SOD to affect the bactericidal process, nitroxide SOD mimics abrogated the pro-oxidative synergy of NO/H2O2. These cell-permeative antioxidants, which hardly react with diamagnetic species and react neither with NO nor with H2O2, can detoxify redox-active transition metals and catalytically remove intracellular superoxide and nitrogen-derived reactive species such as (•)NO2 or peroxynitrite. The possible mechanism underlying the bactericidal NO synergy under oxidative stress and the potential therapeutic gain are discussed.

History

Journal

Free radical biology and medicine

Volume

67

Pagination

248 - 254

Publisher

Elsevier

Location

Philadelphia, PA

ISSN

0891-5849

eISSN

1873-4596

Language

eng

Publication classification

C Journal article; C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2014, Elsevier