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Rapid cardiovascular aging following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematological malignancy

Version 2 2024-06-19, 17:05
Version 1 2023-02-20, 03:29
journal contribution
posted on 2023-02-20, 03:29 authored by HT Dillon, S Foulkes, YA Horne-Okano, D Kliman, David DunstanDavid Dunstan, Robin DalyRobin Daly, Steve FraserSteve Fraser, S Avery, BA Kingwell, A La Gerche, EJ Howden
IntroductionAllogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) offers a potential cure for high-risk hematological malignancy; however, long-term survivors experience increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is unclear how allo-HCT impacts cardiovascular function in the short-term. Thus, this 3-month prospective study sought to evaluate the short-term cardiovascular impact of allo-HCT in hematological cancer patients, compared to an age-matched non-cancer control group.MethodsBefore and ~3-months following allo-HCT, 17 hematological cancer patients (45 ± 18 years) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing to quantify peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)—a measure of integrative cardiovascular function. Then, to determine the degree to which changes in VO2peak are mediated by cardiac vs. non-cardiac factors, participants underwent exercise cardiac MRI (cardiac reserve), resting echocardiography (left-ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], global longitudinal strain [GLS]), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (lean [LM] and fat mass [FM]), blood pressure (BP) assessment, hemoglobin sampling, and arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2diff) estimation via the Fick equation. Twelve controls (43 ± 13 years) underwent identical testing at equivalent baseline and 3-month time intervals.ResultsSignificant group-by-time interactions were observed for absolute VO2peak (p = 0.006), bodyweight-indexed VO2peak (p = 0.015), LM (p = 0.001) and cardiac reserve (p = 0.019), which were driven by 26, 24, 6, and 26% reductions in the allo-HCT group (all p ≤ 0.001), respectively, as no significant changes were observed in the age-matched control group. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed for LVEF, GLS, FM, hemoglobin, BP or a-vO2diff, though a-vO2diff declined 12% in allo-HCT (p = 0.028).ConclusionIn summary, allo-HCT severely impairs VO2peak, reflecting central and peripheral dysfunction. These results indicate allo-HCT rapidly accelerates cardiovascular aging and reinforces the need for early preventive cardiovascular intervention in this high-risk group.

History

Journal

Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

Volume

9

Article number

ARTN 926064

Location

Switzerland

ISSN

2297-055X

eISSN

2297-055X

Language

English

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Publisher

FRONTIERS MEDIA SA