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Robust tracking through the design of high quality fiducial markers: an optimization tool for ARToolKit

Version 2 2024-06-04, 13:01
Version 1 2018-02-11, 01:31
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-04, 13:01 authored by D Khan, S Ullah, DM Yan, I Rabbi, P Richard, Thuong HoangThuong Hoang, M Billinghurst, X Zhang
Fiducial markers are images or landmarks placed in real environment, typically used for pose estimation and camera tracking. Reliable fiducials are strongly desired for many Augmented Reality (AR) applications, but currently there is no systematic method to design highly reliable fiducials. In this paper, we present Fiducial Marker Optimizer (FMO), a tool to optimize the design attributes of ARToolKit markers, including black to white (B:W) ratio, edge sharpness and information complexity, and to reduce inter-marker confusion. For these operations the FMO provides a user friendly interface at the front-end and specialized image processing algorithms at the back-end. We tested manually designed markers and FMO optimized markers in ARToolKit and found that the latter were more robust. The FMO will be used for designing highly reliable fiducials in easy to use fashion. It will improve the application’s performance where it is used.

History

Journal

IEEE access

Volume

6

Pagination

22421-22433

Location

Piscataway, N.J.

Open access

  • Yes

ISSN

2169-3536

Language

eng

Publication classification

C Journal article, C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2018, IEEE

Publisher

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers