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Salmon farms as a source of organohalogenated contaminants in wild fish

journal contribution
posted on 2024-01-16, 23:48 authored by JO Bustnes, E Lie, D Herzke, T Dempster, PA Bjørn, T Nygård, I Uglem
Organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs), including organochlorines (OCs; PCB, and OC-pesticides), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDE], hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured in livers of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens) caught in the vicinity of salmon farms (n = 75) and control sites (n = 80) in three regions (59°-70°N) in Norway. Forty-five percent of the farm-associated (FA) fish (60% of the saithe and 30% of the cod) and none of the control fish had salmon feed (aquaculture food pellets) in their digestive tracts. Concentrations of OCs and BFRs were about 50% higher and dominated more by persistent compounds in Atlantic cod compared to saithe. After controlling for a set of confounding variables (location, sex, size, weight, gonads size, hepatosomatic index, and % lipids in the liver), the concentrations of -OC and -BDE were 50% higher in FA cod compared to control fish, whereas they were 20% higher in FA saithe than control fish. Hence, salmon farms are a source of lipid-soluble OHCs to wild marine fish, but variation in life-history and habitat use seems to affect the levels of OHCs in the different fish species. In contrast to the lipid-soluble OHCs, control fish had 67% higher PFOS levels than FA fish, which suggests that natural food contains higher loads of this compound than the commercial feed used in salmon farms. Some OHCs are known to act as endocrine disruptors, thus further work is required to determine if OHCs negatively affect reproductive processes of wild fish associated with salmon farms. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

History

Journal

Environmental Science and Technology

Volume

44

Pagination

8736-8743

Location

United States

ISSN

0013-936X

eISSN

1520-5851

Language

English

Issue

22

Publisher

AMER CHEMICAL SOC