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Sex differences in the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk across the life course

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journal contribution
posted on 01.10.2019, 00:00 authored by A G Huebschmann, Rachel HuxleyRachel Huxley, W M Kohrt, P Zeitler, J G Regensteiner, J E B Reusch
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. By 2017 estimates, diabetes mellitus affects 425 million people globally; approximately 90–95% of these have type 2 diabetes. This narrative review highlights two domains of sex differences related to the burden of type 2 diabetes across the life span: sex differences in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes, and sex differences in the cardiovascular burden conferred by type 2 diabetes. In the presence of type 2 diabetes, the difference in the absolute rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) between men and women lessens, albeit remaining higher in men. Large-scale observational studies suggest that type 2 diabetes confers 25–50% greater excess risk of incident CVD in women compared with men. Physiological and behavioural mechanisms that may underpin both the observed sex differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the associated cardiovascular burden are discussed in this review. Gender differences in social behavioural norms and disparities in provider-level treatment patterns are also highlighted, but not described in detail. We conclude by discussing research gaps in this area that are worthy of further investigation.

History

Journal

Diabetologia

Volume

62

Issue

10

Pagination

1761 - 1772

Publisher

Springer

Location

New York, N.Y.

ISSN

0012-186X

eISSN

1432-0428

Language

eng

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal