Sex differences in the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk across the life course
journal contributionposted on 2019-10-01, 00:00 authored by A G Huebschmann, Rachel HuxleyRachel Huxley, W M Kohrt, P Zeitler, J G Regensteiner, J E B Reusch
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. By 2017 estimates, diabetes mellitus affects 425 million people globally; approximately 90–95% of these have type 2 diabetes. This narrative review highlights two domains of sex differences related to the burden of type 2 diabetes across the life span: sex differences in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes, and sex differences in the cardiovascular burden conferred by type 2 diabetes. In the presence of type 2 diabetes, the difference in the absolute rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) between men and women lessens, albeit remaining higher in men. Large-scale observational studies suggest that type 2 diabetes confers 25–50% greater excess risk of incident CVD in women compared with men. Physiological and behavioural mechanisms that may underpin both the observed sex differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the associated cardiovascular burden are discussed in this review. Gender differences in social behavioural norms and disparities in provider-level treatment patterns are also highlighted, but not described in detail. We conclude by discussing research gaps in this area that are worthy of further investigation.
Pagination1761 - 1772
LocationNew York, N.Y.
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Publication classificationC1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Science & TechnologyLife Sciences & BiomedicineEndocrinology & MetabolismCardiovascular diseaseDiabetes mellitustype 2Life course developmentLifestyleObesityReviewSex differencesType 2 diabetesCORONARY-HEART-DISEASEQUALITY-OF-CAREINSULIN-RESISTANCEMETABOLIC SYNDROMEGLUCOSE-TOLERANCEPHYSICAL-ACTIVITYHIGHER PREVALENCEBODY-COMPOSITION64 COHORTSGENDERDiabetes mellitus, type 2