Skeletal muscle reactive oxygen species: a target of good cop/bad cop for exercise and disease
journal contributionposted on 2014-05-01, 00:00 authored by Shaun MasonShaun Mason, Glenn WadleyGlenn Wadley
Metabolic stresses associated with disease, ageing, and exercise increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These ROS have been linked mechanistically to adaptations in skeletal muscle that can be favourable (i.e. in response to exercise) or detrimental (i.e. in response to disease). The magnitude, duration (acute versus chronic), and cellular origin of the ROS are important underlying factors in determining the metabolic perturbations associated with the ROS produced in skeletal muscle. In particular, insulin resistance has been linked to excess ROS production in skeletal muscle mitochondria. A chronic excess of mitochondrial ROS can impair normal insulin signalling pathways and glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. In contrast, ROS produced in skeletal muscle in response to exercise has been linked to beneficial metabolic adaptations including mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle hypertrophy. Moreover, unlike insulin resistance, exercise-induced ROS appears to be primarily of non-mitochondrial origin. The present review summarizes the diverse ROS-targeted metabolic outcomes associated with insulin resistance versus exercise in skeletal muscle, thus, presenting two contrasting perspectives of pathologically harmful versus physiologically beneficial ROS. Here, we discuss the key sites of ROS production during exercise and the effect of ROS in skeletal muscle of people with type 2 diabetes.
Pagination97 - 106
Publication classificationC Journal article; C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice2014, Maney Publishing
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ExerciseMitochondriaReactive oxygen speciesSkeletal muscleScience & TechnologyLife Sciences & BiomedicineBiochemistry & Molecular BiologyINDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL BIOGENESISCOACTIVATOR 1-ALPHA PGC-1-ALPHAXANTHINE-OXIDASE INHIBITIONINDUCED INSULIN-RESISTANCEINDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESSGLUCOSE-TRANSPORTNITRIC-OXIDEANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATIONCALORIE RESTRICTIONENDURANCE EXERCISE