The objectives were to systematically investigate the multiple dimensions of sleep and their association with overweight or obesity among primary school-aged children. CINHAL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, and PubMed databases were searched for papers reporting on an association between children's sleep and weight status. Studies on clinical populations, published in languages other than English, without objectively measured weight status, or where weight status was reported outside the outlined age bracket (5-13 years) were excluded. A total of 34 248 citations were extracted from our systematic search protocol, of which 112 were included for detailed review. Compared with sleep duration, of which 86/103 articles found a significant inverse association between sleep duration and measured weight status, few studies examined other dimensions of sleep, such as quality, efficiency and bed/wake times, and relationship with weight status. Where studies existed, variation in defining and measurement of these dimensions restricted comparison and potentially influenced discrepancies across results. Overall, the findings of this review warrant the need for further research of the outlined dimensions of sleep. Future research would benefit from clarity on definitions across the different dimensions, along with the use of valid and reliable tools.