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Subtyping based on readiness and confidence: the identification of help-seeking profiles for gamblers accessing web-based counselling
journal contributionposted on 01.03.2015, 00:00 authored by Simone RoddaSimone Rodda, D I Lubman, R Iyer, C X Gao, Nicki DowlingNicki Dowling
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Problem gamblers are not a homogeneous group and recent data suggest that subtyping can improve treatment outcomes. This study administered three readiness rulers and aimed to identify subtypes of gamblers accessing a national web-based counselling service based on these rulers. METHODS: Participants were 1204 gamblers (99.4% problem gamblers) who accessed a single session of web-based counselling in Australia. Measures included three readiness rulers (importance, readiness and confidence to resist an urge to gamble), demographics and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). RESULTS: Gamblers reported high importance of change [mean = 9.2, standard deviation (SD) = 1.51] and readiness to change (mean = 8.86, SD = 1.84), but lower confidence to resist an urge to gamble (mean = 3.93, SD = 2.44) compared with importance and readiness. The statistical fit indices of a latent class analysis identified a four-class model. Subtype 1 was characterized by a very high readiness to change and very low confidence to resist an urge to gamble (n = 662, 55.0%) and subtype 2 reported high readiness and low confidence (n = 358, 29.7%). Subtype 3 reported moderate ratings on all three rulers (n = 139, 11.6%) and subtype 4 reported high importance of change but low readiness and confidence (n = 45, 3.7%). A multinomial logistic regression indicated that subtypes differed by gender (P < 0.001), age (P = 0.01), gambling activity (P < 0.05), preferred mode of gambling (P < 0.001) and PGSI score (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Problem gamblers in Australia who seek web-based counselling comprise four distinct subgroups based on self-reported levels of readiness to change, confidence to resist the urge to gamble and importance of change.