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The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire: development and validation of age appropriate versions for infants and toddlers

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posted on 01.12.2021, 00:00 authored by E Jansen, Georgie RussellGeorgie Russell, J Appleton, R Byrne, L A Daniels, C Fowler, C Rossiter, K M Mallan
Background In order to measure and understand trajectories of parental feeding practices and their relationship with child eating and weight, it is desirable to perform assessment from infancy and across time, in age-appropriate ways. While many feeding practices questionnaires exist, none is presently available that enables tracking of feeding practices from infancy through childhood. The aim of the study was to develop a version of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) for parents with infants and toddlers (< 2 years) to be used in conjunction with the original FPSQ for older children (≥2 years) to measure feeding practices related to non-responsiveness and structure across childhood. Methods Constructs and items for the FPSQ for infants and toddlers were derived from the existing and validated FPSQ for older children and supplemented by a review of the literature on infant feeding questionnaires. Following expert review, two versions of the questionnaire were developed, one for milk feeding parents and one for solid feeding parents. Data from two studies were combined (child ages 0–24 months) to test the derived constructs with Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the milk feeding (N = 731) and solid feeding (N = 611) versions. Results The milk feeding version consisted of four factors (18 items) and showed acceptable model fit and good internal reliability: ‘feeding on demand vs. feeding routine’ (α = 0.87), ‘using food to calm’ (α = 0.87), ‘persuasive feeding’ (α = 0.71), ‘parent-led feeding’ (α = 0.79). The same four factors showed acceptable model fit for the solid feeding version (21 items), likewise with good internal reliability (α = 0.74, 0.86, 0.85, 0.84 respectively). Two additional factors (13 items) were developed for the solid feeding version that appeared developmentally appropriate only for children aged 12 months or older: ‘family meal environment’ (α = 0.81) and ‘using (non-)food rewards’ (α = 0.92). The majority of factor-factor correlations were in line with those of the original FPSQ. Conclusions The FPSQ milk and solid feeding versions are the first measures specifically developed as precursors to the FPSQ to measure parental feeding practices in children < 2 years, particularly practices related to non-responsiveness and structure. Further validation in more diverse samples is required.



International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity





Article number



1 - 14


BioMed Central


London, Eng.







Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal