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The "X component" in Shanghai's social security reforms
journal contributionposted on 2009-04-01, 00:00 authored by G Davies, Ingrid Nielsen, C Nyland, R Smyth, C Zhu, J Zhu
In 2003, the Shanghai Bureau of Labour and Social Security launched the zhenbao (town insurance) programme, now widely known as 25 plus X. This scheme is regarded as an important experiment in social security reform and has been lauded for extending social security to areas where previously only segments of the population had mandatory coverage. Using data from 103,000 individuals enrolled in 25 plus X, we examine the extent to which the scheme represents an extension in social security coverage. Our analysis suggests that while it does represent an extension of benefits for some, for many it represents a considerable dilution in benefits. © 2009 The author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 International Social Security Association.