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The association between dietary sodium intake, adiposity and sugar-sweetened beverages in children and adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

journal contribution
posted on 2021-08-14, 00:00 authored by Carley GrimesCarley Grimes, Kristy BoltonKristy Bolton, Alison BoothAlison Booth, Ajam KhokharAjam Khokhar, Carrie Service, F H He, Caryl NowsonCaryl Nowson
AbstractHigher intakes of Na may contribute to weight gain. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between dietary Na intake and measures of adiposity in children and adults. Given the previous link between Na intake and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), which are a known risk factor for obesity, a secondary aim examining the relationship between Na intake and SSB consumption was assessed. A systematic literature search identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials (RCT) which reduced dietary Na (≥3 months). Meta-analysis was performed for outcomes with ≥3 studies. Cross-sectionally higher Na intakes were associated with overweight/obesity in adults (five studies; n 11 067; OR 1·74; 95 % CI 1·43, 2·13) and in children (three studies; n 3625, OR 3·29; 95 % CI 2·25, 4·80), and abdominal obesity (five studies; n 19 744; OR 2·04; 95 % CI 1·72, 2·42) in adults. Overall, associations remained in sensitivity analyses which adjusted for energy. Findings from longitudinal studies were inconsistent. RCT in adults indicated a trend for lower body weight on reduced-Na compared with control diets (fifteen studies; n 5274; −0·29 kg; 95 % CI −0·59, 0·01; P = 0·06); however, it is unclear if energy intakes were also altered on reduced-Na diets. Among children higher Na intakes were associated with higher intake of SSB (four studies, n 10 329, b = 22, 16 and 26 g/d); no studies were retrieved for adults. Overall, there was a lack of high-quality studies retrieved. While cross-sectional evidence indicates Na intake was positively associated with adiposity, these findings have not been clearly confirmed by longitudinal studies or RCT.

History

Journal

British Journal of Nutrition

Volume

126

Issue

3

Article number

PII S0007114520004122

Pagination

409 - 427

Publisher

CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS

Location

England

ISSN

0007-1145

eISSN

1475-2662

Language

English

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal