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The restoration of the passivity of stainless steel Weldments in pickling solutions observed using electrochemical and surface analytical methods
journal contributionposted on 2015-10-01, 00:00 authored by Jianyu XiongJianyu Xiong, S Agarwala, Mike Yongjun TanMike Yongjun Tan, Maria ForsythMaria Forsyth
In this study, a solution containing ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and nitric acid (HNO3) was used as an alternative to the conventional highly toxic pickling solution HF/HNO3 for pickling weldments of selected stainless steels including Type 316 stainless steel (UNS S31600), duplex stainless steel 2205 (UNS S32205), and super duplex stainless steel 2507 (UNS S32750). Electrochemical and surface analytical methods were used to understand the effects of pickling on the stainless steel weldments. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) test results indicated that the restoration of passivity of stainless steel weldments could be achieved by pickling the weldments in both HF/HNO3 solution and NH4F/HNO3 solutions. Scanning electron microscopy observation of the UNS S32750 weldment surface revealed that both the HF/HNO3 solution and the NH4F/HNO3 solution could remove the heat tint on the weldment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that treatment in these two pickling solutions produced passive films with similar characteristics. Thus, this work suggests that the NH4F/HNO3 solution is a promising alternative to HF/HNO3 solution for the pickling of stainless steel weldments, and that the CPP test approach can be used in conjunction with surface analytical methods for further development of safer and environmentally friendly picklingsolutions.