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The role of protein kinase D (PKD) in intracellular nutrient sensing and regulation of adaptive responses to the obese environment.
journal contributionposted on 2021-03-01, 00:00 authored by Mark Colin RentonMark Colin Renton, Sean McgeeSean Mcgee, Kirsten HowlettKirsten Howlett
Obesity is associated with ectopic accumulation of lipids, which is implicated in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms of this disease. Protein kinase D (PKD) is an intracellular signalling kinase with well characterized roles in intracellular vesicle transport and secretion, cancer cell proliferation and cardiac hypertrophy. However, emerging evidence also highlights PKD as a novel nutrient sensor. PKD activation is mediated by the accumulation of the lipid intermediate diacylglycerol, and PKD activity in the liver, heart and adipose tissue increases upon feeding. In obesity, PKD signalling is linked to reduced insulin signalling and dysfunction in adipose tissue, liver and heart, whilst in the pancreas, PKD is essential for the compensatory increase in glucose‐stimulated insulin secretion from β‐cells during obesity. Collectively, these studies reveal aspects of PKD signalling that are involved in the tissue‐specific responses to obesity. This review summarizes the emerging evidence suggesting that PKD plays an important role in regulating the adaptive response to the obese environment.